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60 Years of Nepali Cinema : King Mahendra – the First Lyricist

प्रकाशित मिति : बैशाख २५, २०७४ सोमबार

-Yam Prasad Chaulagain

Film sector of Nepal has not faced crisis of writing lyrics as like other disciplines. The lyrics of ‘Aama’, which was made in Nepal in 1965 A.D., was composed by Mahendra Bira Bikram Shah and Laxman Lohani jointly. Likewise, after 1966 A.D. Kiran Kharel and Pradip Rimal emerged through the lyrics of Nepali film ‘Maitighar’. Among few of the specific lyricists, Kharel is one. Kharel has commenced his journey of lyric writing, recording his lyrics in the vocal of Batuk Krishna in 1957 A.D. in words like ‘A Dur Ka Sitara Mero Chadani Kaha Chha’. He has written lyrics for Nepali film like ‘Maan Ko Bandh’, ‘Jivan Rekha’, ‘Kumari’, ‘Sindur’, ‘Kanyadan’, ‘Adhikar’, ‘Mahamaya’, ‘Surga’ including other dozen of films. According to the cognition of Kharel, ‘lyrics is a babble which remains crystal, pious and innocent which affects every individuals’.

Shree Dhar Khanal moves ahead of his journey of lyricist through his lyrics from ‘Hijo Aaja and Bholi’ which was made in 1967 A.D. Like that Chetan Karki through the cinema ‘Paribartan’ which was made in 1970 A.D. Including his lyrics in the cinema ‘Pariwartan’, Karki has drafted plot, dialogue and more importantly he has fulfilled the responsibility of sub-director/in charge. Till the day, he has worked as a lyricist, a director and plot and script writer for more than three dozens of cinema including ‘Biswas’, ‘Pahilo Prem, ‘Pariwartan’.

With the lyrics of ‘Man Ko Bandh’ of 1973 A.D, Madhav Ghimire and Shiva Shanker began to write lyrics jointly. Shiva Shanker who has acted in the cinema ‘Aama’, a first Nepali film produced in Nepal, is the first hero of Nepali cinema. Specially, he is established as musician although he is a best lyricist. He filled his music in the cinema like ‘Maan Ko Bandh’, ‘Kumari’, ‘Pachis Basanta’.

On set of year in 1977 A.D, Kiran Kharel commenced his journey as lyricist through his lyrics in first colorful movie of Nepal, i.e.’Kumari’. In the same year through the lyrics in ‘Paral Ko Aago’ Min Bahadur Mukhiya and Indra Thapalia set their journey of lyricist. Like that in ‘Jivan Rekha’ of 1982 A.D, Kali Prasad Rijal and through the movie ‘Bachhna Chahaneharoo’, which was released in the same year, Nordan Rumba emerged as a lyricist.

The decade of 80’s is also significant and meaningful in the context of emergence of new lyricists. Generally, the movies of that decade remained successful. Gopal Yongan and Nagendra Thapa have entered in the field of lyrics writing from the movie ‘Badlido Aakash’ which was released in October 29, 1983. The highly intellectual lyricist Gopal Yongan has filled his music in the representative movies like ‘Sindur’, ‘Kanchi’, ‘Mayapriti’, ‘Biswas’, ‘Bhumari’, ‘Hami Ek Haau’, has left his impacts in the field of lyrics and song. The epitome of creation of lyrics, modern song, folk songs of Gopal Yonjan are ‘Kanchee hee Kanchee’, ‘Changwa Hee Changwa’, ‘Mayalu hajar Hunchhan’, ‘Kahile Kahi Maanka Kura Hamlai Pani Bhana’, ‘Lau Suna ma Bhanchhu Mero Ram Kahani’, ‘Des le Ragata Mange Malai Bali Chadhaunu, ‘Bhaneko Chha Paharale Yo Chhati Mero’. According to the leading film director and writer Chetan Karki, ‘Every human being have better vocal, not art. May be vocal and art but lacks ability to run a pen. By the bless of god only few have the triad of art, vocal and pen. Gopal Yongan is one of the fortunate man among them.’

While taking about issue of lyrics, in the decade of 80’s Ratna Samser Thapa has emerged as a lyricist through his song in the movie ‘Juni’. Mr. Thapa has crafted his high reputation through his lyrics who has begun to write from 1951 A.D. He is a person who has worked jointly with late Narayan Gopal for several years. Ratna Samser Thapa is the creator of the song ‘Surga ki Raani Maayaki Khani Najau Tarkera’ which is sang by Narayan Goapal for the first time. The originator of the touchy song like ‘Yee Kanchha Thattaima Yo Baisa Jana Lagyo’, Thapa has written song in the movies like ‘Aanyaye’, ‘Bhagya Rekha’, ‘Chokho Maya’, ‘Cinema’.

The songs like ‘Saptarangai Phulaiphulyo’, ‘Phuko Dalidali Ma,’ ‘Ukali Orawali Gardai’ including other songs are liked by audience a lot. The originator of several immortal songs, lyricist Thapa says, ‘ I call song as a conflux of literature and culture. A song becomes influential only after the better arrangement of vocal, lyrics, and standard.’

Likewise, Kushum Gazmer and Ranjit Gazmer are the lyricists who drew on Nepali films through their lyrics in ‘Jhoda’ which was released in 1986 A.D. Although Ranjit Gazmer has written few lyrics, mainly he is a musician. Through the movie ‘Bansuri’ of 1980 A.D., Ranjit Gazmer has emerged as musician and Parso Musician. Darjeeling born musician Gazmer is the first person to introduce Madal in Hindi film. Gazmer included the team of Saran Pradhan, Gopal Younjan, Aruna Lama, Jeetendra Bardewa who tried their best to lead Nepali music into new phase. It has been seen that Gajmaire has written lyrics in the movies like ‘Samjhana’, ‘Masal’, ‘Mayalu’, ‘Lahure’, ‘Shaino’, ‘Behuli’, ‘Chino’, ‘Sapana’, ‘Deuta’. The other prominent lyricists who have enrolled in the field of movie as lyricists are Prem Binod Nandan through the movie ‘Kahchhi’, Yadav Kharel through ‘Chelibeti’, Shree Purush Dhakal thorough ‘Didi’, Dhanendra Bimal through ‘Gopikrishan’. While analyzing the lyrics of aforementioned lyricists, Prem Binod Nandan drafted lyrics for ‘Santan’, ‘Karja’, ‘Mohani’. Like that Shree Purush Dhakal has given lyrics in the films like ‘Jali Rumal’, ‘Aapaharn’, ‘Hatyaa’. Like that Gagan Birahi has written lyrics for ‘Sankalpa’, ‘Bhauju’, ‘Truck Driver’, ‘Mohani’, ‘Miteri Gaun’.

Accustomed to write modern songs Yadhav Kharel is the significant person to write lyrics for movie in the decade of 80s. Except ‘Chelibeti’ Kharel has written lyrics for the movies like ‘Bhauju’, ‘Aandhiberi’, ‘Lovipapi’, ‘Prem Pinda and ‘Naso’. The lyricist who emerged as a lyricist in the late days of the decade of 80s is Dhanendra Bimal. Lyricist Bimal has written lyrics in several films. The movies for which lyricist Bimal has written lyrics are ‘Gopi Krishna’, ‘Tapasya’, ‘Rakshya’, ‘Nata’, ‘Dusman’, ‘Tuhuro’, ‘Bhismya Pratigya’, ‘Sita’, ‘Sholtinee’ , ‘Aama’ and others.

In the decade of 90’s, some new faces have emerged in the field of lyrics writing. The active lyricists who have enrolled in the field of cinema are Promod Dhungana through the movie ‘Tapasya’, Rajendra Poudel through ‘Prithivi’, Rajendra Thapa, Suman Nepali and Krishna Hari Baral through ‘Andolan’, Dayaram Pandey through ‘Muskan’, Nawaraj Lamsal through ‘Siudo’, Sahadev Dhungana through ‘Janma Bhumi’, Dr. Bhola Rijal through ‘Choori Bhuhari’ and Unnatisila Bohara through ‘Aafnopan’.

The lyricist, who commenced his journey as lyricist through the lyrics of ‘Tapashya’, has composed lyrics for dozens of movies including ‘Sangam’, Triveni’, ‘Mato Bolchha’, ‘Maya Basechha’, ‘Bhariya’, ‘Yo Kasto Prem’, ‘Prem Uddha’, ‘Naya Nepal’, ‘Bidhai’, ‘ Ke Ma Timro Saathi Banna Sakchhu’.

The musician emerged in the decade of 90’s are Laxman Sesh, Mahesh Khadka and Chetan Sapkota. Promod Dhungana is the lyricist who drafted lyrics for these four musician tells that a lyricist has to pay equal attention in the selection of words and its impact in theme. The lyricists who emerged as a lyrist through the lyrics of ‘Prithivi’, Rajendra Poudel has drafted lyrics in films like ‘Cinema’, ‘Pratichha’, ‘Rajkumar’, ‘Yo Mayale Launa Satayo’, ‘Rani Khola’ and ‘Army’. The famous song of Poudel are : ‘Jani Najani Timile K Diyou’, ‘Dui Chulthi Batera’, ‘Salala Gandaki Tarula Rodhighar Mayalu Ghankaula’.

The person who begins to compose lyrics though Nepali movie ‘Andolan’ is Krishna Hari Baral. Lyricist Baral is a university professor although he remains active in the writing of lyrics. He has written lyrics for the movies like ‘Triveni’, ‘Bashain’, ‘Himmat’, ‘Hifajat’, ‘Kusumerumal’, ‘Pahilo Pahilo Maya’ and ‘Nai Na Bhannu La’. The lyrist Baral claims that lyrics is a discipline where one can express feeling without any hindrance. The popular song of Baral are: ‘Maile Tehai Bhayera Manparako’, ‘Ma Marne Bela Timi Chahi Aaunu’, ‘Marne Kasaiko Rahar Hudaina’,’ K Ma Timro Hoina Ra’.

The lyricist who has emerged through the film ‘Muskan’, Dayaram Pandey has composed lyrics for the movies like: ‘Khayal Khayal Mai’, ‘Dui Pal’, ‘Indreni’, ‘Nikhil Dai’, ‘Aamako ‘Aasirwad’. The popular song of Pandey are : ‘Hamse Puchhona Babai Hamse Puchhona’, ‘Hajurbale Bhanethe’, ‘Sinka Sinka Jodera’ etc. The lyricist Sahadev Dhungana who has composed lyrics for the movies like ‘Karodpati’, ‘Janma Bhumi’, Maili’, ‘Nagadnarayan’, is famous for this song ‘Rato Tika Nidharma Talakka Talkiyo’, ‘Bhare Aauchhu Sapanima Parkhirakha Hai’.

The next lyricist who entered in the field of film as a lyricist is Navaraj Lamsal. Lamsal who has adopted his profession as a media person tells that it is easier for him to write lyrics in movie than modern lyrics. He has drafted lyrics for the movie like ‘Siudo’, ‘Aasirbad’, ‘Arjun’, ‘Natedar’ etc. The most favored song of Lamsal are ‘Jharna Bhai Jhardai Aau’, ‘Hamro Maya Oaile Jane Due Dine Phool Hoina including others.

Dr. Bhola Rijal who began to draft from the movie ‘Chori Bhuhari’, has composed lyrics for the movies like: ‘Laxmi Puja’, ‘Nepali Babu’, ‘Mr. Ramkrisne’, ‘Saathi’, ‘Gauthali’. The equally capable person in music and vocal, Dr Rijal is the lyricist of the movies like ‘Laxmi Pooja’, ‘Chori Bhuhari’, ‘Juntara’, ‘Saathi including many others. In the process of composing lyrics as a female lyricist, Unnatisila Bohara has emerged through the film ‘Aafnopan’. She has composed lyrics for ‘Ko aafno ko birano’, ‘Raju Rajaram,’ ‘Nepal’.

Along with them, partly Uddhav Poudel, Dayaram Dahal, Badri Adhikari, Kiran Gauchan, Suresh Adhikari, Sundar Shrestha, late Shiva Regmi, Maadan Ghimire, Dipak Shrestha, Basanta Sapkota, Pradip Bhardowas, Dabbu ksherti have composed lyrics. Most of the aforementioned people have not been recognized as lyricist professionally. Instead they have been active in direction of movies, plot drafting, creation of literature and actor. The lyricist who partly composed lyrics for movies but remained active in other discipline are Nir Shah, Madan Krishna Shrestha, Ishor Ballav, Ganesh Rashik and Jivan Adhikari. In this way, up to the decade of 60’s and 70’s, the new generation lyricists have not any dashing influence in lyricist writing. Instead the lyricists of old generation are working better.

At last, the film sector of Nepal has crossed journey of six decade. During the entire epoch of lyrics writing, several composers have involved in this discipline. Some of them have taken it as their interest and some of them have taken it as a matter of mass publicity. We have to pay veneration to them who have composed immortal lyrics continuously since the beginning era up to now.   Just for shake of writing lyrics any person could write song but the audience do not provide room to all the songs in their heart. It is necessary to feel the contribution of these lyricists who have composed just few lyrics. The examples of it are ‘Balidan’ by Shyam Tamot and the lyrics ‘Gaun Gaun Bata Utha’, ‘Chot’ of Dr. Dirgha Singh Bam and the lyrics ‘Birahi Maya Adhuro Rahyo’. Through his lyrics like ‘Gidagi Khola Jastai Bagirahechha’, ‘Na Mero Gharai Chha’, ‘Gairi Khetko Sirai Hanyo’, Yadav Kharel, for the songs like ‘Ukali Orali Gaidai’, ‘Phool Ko Dali Dali Ma’, Ratna Semsher Thapa including Kiran Kharel, Prem Binod Nandan, Dhanendra Bimal, Dr. Krishna Hari Baral, Promod Dhungana’s Lyrics composition have made the history of lyrics composition of Nepal beautiful. Song a just a poetic garland of words. There is a significant role of word selection, word construction and the implied theme of these word in a lyrics. It has to be considered either by newly entered lyricist or the lyricist of old generation. As like the statement of renowned lyricist Ratna Samsher Thapa, ‘ Song becomes impressive only if it is in verse, poetic, standard, touchstone and applicable.’

Works Cited

– Aavash (October 17, 2015). Music of Nepali Song. Annapurna Post Daily
Chapagagin, Krandan (2014 A.D). Reel to Digital. Kathmandu: Jayakali Publication
– Chaulagain, Yam (2007 A.D.). Charioteer of Film. Kathmandu
– Risal, Rammani (2006 A.D.). Varied Epoch: Nepali Lyricists. Kathmandu




   न्युयोर्क स्टेट, डिपार्टमेन्ट अफ स्टेट, डिभिजन अफ कर्पोरेशन, दर्ता नम्बर: ५२५५२५८

नमस्ते मिडिया इन्क.

न्युयोर्क, अमेरिका

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